Hi there, welcome to my Blog, today I will be covering everything related to Normal ovary, Hormones, and common cysts, All you need to know about ovulation. As you probably know the ovulation process is the beginning of a beautiful pregnancy, so if you want to learn something fascinating today keep looking.
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Normal hormonal cycle and ovulation.
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) is found in the first half of the cycle or follicular phase, this hormone stimulates the growth of multiples follicles in the ovary, however only one ovarian follicle emerges at day 9 of the cycle, that follicle is known as Dominant follicle, other follicles on the ovary stop growing and then eventually regrets. The Luteinizing hormone (LH) surge from the pituitary gland on about day 14 and causes ovulation from that single dominant ovarian follicle. During the second half of the cycle or luteal phase, after the follicle is released from the dominant follicle the corpus luteum is formed, this structure releases hormones, mainly progesterone and some estrogen. Those two ovarian hormones prepare the endometrium for possible implantation of a fertilized egg.
So here is a summary:
*First hypothalamus Produce Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone or GnRH.
*Second Anterior Pituitary Produce FSH and LH.
*And finally Ovarian follicles start producing Estrogen and the corpus luteum starts producing Progesterone.
All hormones are crucial on the monthly menstrual cycle, the ovarian Hormones finally prepares the endometrium for possible implantation.
More information about ovarian follicles.
*A single ovarian follicle that enlarges between day 9 and day 14 on the cycle.
*The diameter increases from 1 cm to 2 cm during that time.
*When the diameter increases to 2 cm ovulation is expected to happen within the next 24 hours.
*Following ovulation a small amount of free fluid could be seen at the pelvis.
Ultrasound image of a Dominant Follicle.
Hemorrhagic ovarian cysts.
*A hemorrhagic cyst develops from a follicle or a corpus luteum by spontaneous rupture of blood vessels into the cystic cavity.
*This type of cyst contains blood clots or fibrin strands.
*This cyst will usually change its internal appearance and/or diminish in size.
*Bleeding within cystic lesions strongly suggest Benign nature.
Ultrasound image of a Hemorrhagic cyst.
Corpus luteum cyst ( most important cyst if you desire a pregnancy)
*After ovulation, the empty cavity of the ruptured follicle is gradually filled by luteal cells.
*This cyst is usually less than 2.5 cm in diameter however it can grow up to 8 cm in diameter, in this case, if a pregnancy occurs a follow-up Ultrasound is recommended to check the size of the cyst to prevent an Ovarian Torsion, but the pregnancy should be fine.
*This cyst is in charge of producing Progesterone, an important hormone for preparing the Endometrium for a possible pregnancy.
Ultrasound image of Corpus luteal cyst.
A small summary about abnormal ovarian cyst.
Theca lutein cyst is a hormone related lesion that may develop because of an abnormal/sudden increased of Human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), This can be related to normal causes like Multiples pregnancies (TWINS etc..), but can also be related to Abnormal diseases like:
*Maternal fetal RH incompatibility.
*Some autoimmune diseases.
Ultrasound image of Theca lutein cysts.
Cause of infertility related to the ovaries
Polycystic ovaries or PCOS.
Polycystic ovarian disease or PCOS is also known as choric anovulation syndrome, wherein dysfunctional hormonal cycles lead to chronic anovulation usually beginning at menarche. Clinical manifestation can include :
With PCOS an increase of LH, Testosterone, and Androstenedione is usually found.
On patients with isolated Infertility caused by PCOS a medical treatment with Clomiphene citrate to induce ovulation can solve the problem.
Ultrasound images of PCOS.
As you can see many things has to occur for a pregnancy to happen.
How can you know if you are ovulating?
well, the most important signs of Ovulation are:
*A slight rise in basal body temperature.
*Wet and slippery vaginal discharge that has the appearance of egg whites.
* Slightly increased in sexual desire.
Functional cysts are usually harmless, rarely cause symptoms and often disappears on their own within 2 or 3 menstrual cycles.
Other types of cysts that are not related to menstrual cycles are:
Dermoid cysts: Also known as Teratomas, these types of cysts can contain tissue, such as hair, skin or teeth, because they form from embryonic cells. They are rarely cancerous.
Cystadenomas: These develop on the surface of the ovary and might be filled with watery or a mucous material.
Endometrioma: These develop as a result of a condition known as ENDOMETRIOSIS which is when endometrial cells grow outside of the uterus.
Paraovarian cyst: A cyst that is found near the fallopian tubes or the ovaries, contains a defined membrane, they can go on their own or has to be surgically removed.
The most remarkable complications of large ovarian cysts can be:
Ovarian torsion or Cyst Ruptured.
OK so this concludes Ovaries, I hope you enjoy my post and I want to encourage you to always check with your Gynecologist to Rule out any problems if you are not getting pregnant easily, keep in mind all women are different. I will see you in my next post, I will officially start pregnancy.
See you next time XO Zadi.